During the last 100 years, almost every part of our society has undergone a technical revolution. Whether in the business sector or in the health care sector, technology is continually developing and influences our daily life. Taking into account that the educational services have been in technological gap so far, this field is now catching up rather quickly.
Learning analytics – Measure
Exploit powerful and insightful learning analytics in order to set and manage goals, define indicators and understand individuals’ learning with personalized reports. With useful dashboards measure learning outcomes and drive performance.
“Insightful analytics improve successful design of learning at massive scale.”
Source: Mike Sharples, Chair in Educational Technology, Institute of Educational Technology, The Open University
or how we understand learning
Evaluation requires very specific criteria. It is a set of crucial steps (diagnostic evaluation, criterion-referenced assessment, formative evaluation, summative evaluation) that provide:
- Insightful information about how a course is understood,
- Powerful data to understand individuals’ learning.
A qualitative data collection and analysis have to be performed, among others:
- A diagnostic evaluation: to evaluate the person before learning, in order to adjust the content of the course or presentation.
- A criterion-referenced assessment: to validate the knowledge and skills acquired, at the end of the learning process.
- A formative evaluation: to provide individualized support during the phase of exercises and tests, and to follow the progress of each learner individually.
- A summative evaluation: to make a final assessment or issue a certificate.
Above all, learning evaluation and analytics enhance learning outcomes by driving actionable individual action plans.
Learning consolidation – Retain
Learning consolidation is based on a spaced repetition of assignments which automatically adapts to the learner’s pace, optimizing the retention and consolidation of knowledge as well as skills development.
“The retention rate turns out to be three times as high due to spaced repetition.”
Source: Henry L. Roediger, III, and Jeffrey D. Karpicke, Test-Enhanced Learning: Taking Memory Tests Improves Long-Term Retention, Washington University in St. Louis, 2006
or how we retain
The psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus is considerated as the father of the learning experimental psychology. He is known for his book In Memory of 1885 where the term “forgetting curve” has been introduced. In this publication, he presents an example of retention rates. He had learned himself nonsense syllables and only retained 21% of them after a month.
Since then, other studies have appeared on memory and forgotten, with complementary results. These studies were based on the retention of diverse and varied knowledge1, 2, 3, 4 and have different retention results that vary between 11% and 98%.
These differences are explained by various factors, among which:
- Type of content to be memorized,
- Methodology used for remembering,
- Number and form of reminders after a learning session.
In particular, studies4, 5 and practice clearly show that it is easier to remember:
- Structured content (content on neuronal function) rather than unstructured content (nonsense syllables),
- Making short, quick and fun tests rather than making long review sessions,
- Alternating subjects rather than learning a single material,
- Delegating “review session” (automatic reminders planning) to a computer tool.
(1) Couples English- Spanish words without previous knowledge of Spanish on an English-speaking population after one month and after 8 years ( ” Bahrick , HP (1979) Maintenance of knowledge: . . Questions about memory we forgot to ask Journal of Experimental Psychology: General , 108, 296-308 “and” Bahrick , HP, & Phelps , E. ( 1987) Retention of Spanish vocabulary over 8 years Journal of Experimental Psychology: . . Learning , Memory , and Cognition , 13, 344 -349 ” ),
(2) Arbitrary associations of two words after one week (Runquist, W. (1983). Some effects of remembering on forgetting. Memory & Cognition, 11, 641-650. Experiment 1. ),
(3) Course Content on neuronal function, thinking and feeling after a day, three days and one week (Jones, HE ( 1925). Experimental Studies of College Teaching . Archives of Psychology. New York , 68, 1-70 . Experiments on pages 38-40 . ),
(4) The intersection of subjects to remember ( The Effects of Interleaved Practice in 2010 by KELLI TAYLOR and DOUG ROHRER Department of Psychology , University of South Florida , USA),
(5) “Taking Memory Tests Improves Long – Term Retention ” by Henry L. Roediger , III, and Jeffrey D. Karpicke – Washington University in St. Louis – 2006
Adaptive learning – Assimilate
Adaptive learning is an algorithm combining research in cognitive science and Big Data. It enhances knowledge assimilation by defining smart learning paths perfectly adapted to the learner’s profile and needs.
“The rapid digitization of the education industry and the emergence of cognitive systems is already happening in parallel.”
Source: IBM Research 5 in 5 2013 – The classroom will learn you – Cognitive systems will provide decision support for teachers
OU COMMENT NOUS APPRENONS
Il existe de nombreuses théories sur la manière dont nous apprenons, des rapports sur les modes d’apprentissage, les préférences des apprenants en matière de pédagogie ou encore sur des expérimentions ou concepts… Il est surtout important de réaliser que ces théories convergent sur un même point : chacun a ses propres préférences et facilités d’apprentissage.
D’autre part, les points de départ et de fin de l’apprentissage peuvent varier pour chacun, conduisant à l’importance d’offrir un apprentissage adaptatif et personnalisé.
Il existe tout de même certaines stratégies pour renforcer les résultats de l’apprentissage :
- Utiliser des pédagogies différentes en fonction des supports,
- Challenger les apprenants avec des tests,
- Proposer un suivi avec des données pertinentes et utiles,
- Adapter le parcours d’apprentissage au rythme de chacun,
- Définir des objectifs alignant niveau de connaissance et maîtrise des compétences.
or how we learn
There are many theories of how we learn, some introduce the learning styles, others insist on learner’s preference with some pedagogies, some others claim about an experimental approach, others more conceptual…
Agree or disagree? What is important to note is that these theories converge at one point: everyone has a preference and facility for some type of pedagogy or knowledge, and this one can differ from one person to another.
Furthermore, the starting and ending point of learning are or can be different for each one, leading to the need of adaptive and personalized learning.
In any case, some important strategies to enhance learning outcomes are:
- Use different learning pedagogies for each content,
- Challenge learners with tests,
- Provide useful and insightful feedback,
- Adapt the learning path to the individual pace,
- Settle objectives and goals matching the knowledge level and skills mastery.